Sources

These links are exceptional sources of information about the people of Africa and Africa's Diaspora.  On behalf of WISC, I have selected the following links which carry a wealth of information on Africa and other parts of the world to chart the development of human history.  I have quoted a sample of the outors' narrative to indicate the key message, and to understand my selection of the work, and why you will find the respective pieces highly informative. I recommend them to you:
 
http://www.africahistory.net/africantimeline.htm
Dr. Gloria T. Emeagwali, Professor of History and African Studies, Central Connecticut State University charts an Ancient African Timeline 

http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/referenc/afritime.htm
Within the framework of World Cvilisations, the author  Raplh Lerner Meacham Burns charts a Whole World Time  which includes 'Chapters on Africa, African Multimedia, and African History Timeline.

www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/origins-commonwealth-immigration.htm
 In 'Origins of Commonwealth Immigration' the National Archives has published a narrative citing under-development and rebellions in the Caribbean for better pay and conditions as the push factors;  and 'Labour Shortages and a decling population as the pull factors as the 'Origins of Commonwealth Immigration.

'After the Second World War, there was a labour shortage in Britain which was coupled with concern over the declining population. In 1948, the government set up a working party to consider employment of colonial labour. The working party did not recommend large-scale immigration because of the fear of discrimination against immigrants.

Spontaneous movement from the Caribbean (where unemployment was high) began in 1948 with the symbolic arrival of the SS Empire Windrush, carrying people to Britain in the hope of finding employment. There were no restrictions on immigration from the Commonwealth, and as British subjects, they had full rights of citizenship. This principle was reaffirmed in the British Nationality Act of 1948, although large-scale immigration was not envisaged at the time.'

http://www.education.gov.uk/rsgateway
'Statistical First Release (SFR): DfE: Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16-18 Year Olds in England - March/June 2011.
The statistics due to be published in the "Participation in Education, Training and Employment by 16-18 Year Olds in England" SFR will now be published in two parts. This follows a request from the Young People's Learning Agency (YPLA) for earlier data at Local Authority (LA) level to inform local reporting and planning processes.'

http://old.antislavery.org/breakingthesilence/slave_routes/slave_routes_portugal.shtml 
 Portugal is cited as the first European Country to attempt to conquer and exploit Africa.
 
'Slavery has a long tradition in Portugal. Muslims were taken prisoner and enslaved by Christians in the wars in Portugal during the 12th and 13th centuries. Although slavery in Muslim people declined in subsequent centuries a trade in African slaves was established in the 15th century following early expeditions to the continent. Portugal was the first European country to attempt to conquer and exploit Africa, establishing many forts along the coast and treaties with heads of state to help enable this trade in human beings.'

http://yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk/index.php?title=Slave_Compensation_Commission
Slave Compensation Commission
From Your Archives

Also "Commission for Compensation" and "Commission for Arbitration" of Slave Compensation.
The records of the Slave Compensation Commission are in T 71 records the following.
'From the difficulties which attended the equitable distribution of the £20,000,000 voted by the British Parliament for the compensation of the slave proprietors, these papers are necessarily divided into a great variety of classes. The total number of slaves registered at the last slave registration was 780,993, and the sum voted was only sufficient to pay about 40 per cent of their value, and in as much as no fixed standard of value could be placed per head on each slave, the amount varying, not only according to the sex, age, and infirmity or capabilities of the slave, but also between colony and colony,* in consequence of the amount of population, nature and scarcity of employment and so on, a very laborious investigation by Assistant Commissioners appointed for each colony became necessary, the results of which are embodied in the books and records mentioned above.
* Thus in 1830, the value of a first-rate slave in Nevis was £54, and in British Guiana £230; whilst that of an inferior domestic in the Bahamas was only £25, and in British Guiana, £93 (Thomas, Handbook of Public Records).'

http://www.blackherbals.com/walter_rodney.pdf
Walter Rodney 1973 wrote a scintilating narrative explaining 'How Europe Underdeveloped Africa'
Published by: Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications, London and Tanzanian Publishing House, Dar-Es-Salaam 1973, Transcript from 6th reprint, 1983;Transcribed: by Joaquin Arriola.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1523669.stm 
BBC's Jon Silverman expresses his opinion on the African's quest for compensation.
 
'For many, the prospect of a court awarding compensation for the pain and misery inflicted by the slave trade is yet more evidence of our "compensation culture" gone crazy.
Yet, the use of the law to right the political and social wrongs of the past has become well-established in the last decade - and may provide a useful precedent for campaigners.'

The Holocaust was a unique part of world history, and I don't think it indicates a trend.

Nancy Sher Cohen, lawyer The United States, where a $300bn compensation claim has been launched on behalf of black American groups, pointed the way as long ago as 1987, when Congress voted to award $1.2bn to Japanese-Americans who were interned in camps during World War II.
In the 1990s, the issue of historical restitution gained momentum with a series of lawsuits related to the Nazi Holocaust.  They resulted in damages being awarded against European banks and businesses over looted property, unpaid insurance benefits and forced labour.

http://yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk/index.php?title=Registry_of_Colonial_Slaves   
Office for Registry of Colonial Slaves... From Your Archives... (Redirected from Registry of Colonial Slaves)
'Under the terms of the Slave Registration Act (1819)[1] provision was made for a central registry of slaves in London, subject to the control of the Commissioners of the Treasury. Under this act no slaves could be bought, sold, inherited or moved between the islands unless they had been first entered into the appropriate island register. In 1821 the governors were instructed to send copies of the island slave registers and associated indexes to the London registry.'

http://www.open2.net/slavery/slavery_to_freedom_p2.html
Abolition (1750-1807)
European slave traders rarely doubted or questioned their work. They generally gave thanks to the Lord for a quick/safe/profitable passage, praying for good winds and good trade. They gave thankful prayers when safe from storms and slave rebellion. Rarely however did they imagine that their work was a godless, unchristian exercise. The Africans below decks were mere items of trade, numbered and documented in the slave logs like beasts and other items of trade: numbered but never named. The Atlantic slave system had reduced the African to an object. This was achieved not simply by the impersonal rise of an economic system, but through conscious policy: by Acts of Parliament, by colonial laws (approved in London), by common law decisions, and by the vigorous activities of British (and other European) merchants, traders, planters and working people, at all points of this notorious `triangular trade.’

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/building_britain_gallery_02.shtml
Slavery and the Building of Britain By James Walvin

Bank of England, London, Banks and banking

'The thriving British economy after 1660 was made possible mainly because of Britain's financial institutions. Trading houses, insurance companies and banks emerged to underpin Britain's overseas trade and empire. The expansion of overseas trade, especially in the Atlantic, relied on credit, and bills of credit (like modern travellers cheques), which were at the heart of the slave trade. Similarly, the maritime insurance, which was focused at Lloyds of London, thrived on the Atlantic slave trade.
There were no banks in the City until the mid-17th century, and even a century later, banking was under-developed outside London. But slave traders and planters badly needed credit. A slave voyage from Liverpool to Africa then on to the Caribbean, before heading home, could take 18 months. And each point of the trade - buying and selling Africans, buying and importing produce (mainly sugar) cultivated using the labour of enslaved people - involved credit arrangements. Merchants and traders in London, Bristol and Liverpool, bought the planters' produce, so in effect, British merchants became the bankers of the slave trade.'

http://www.ancientbankingsecret.com/bankengland.htm
"Over the years the Bank has become a national institution. More recently it has been treated as an instrument of government, acting as broker and underwriter for government borrowing. But in its 300 year history it bears an awful responsibility for the terrible peverty and famines that have regularly been inflicted on the British people. Regularly throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centruies the Bank operated a policy of cruel restriction of credit. It provoked the American colonies into declaring independence after gaining control of their currency and then contracting it by 50 per cent. Its policy of adherance to the gold standard brought suffering and starvation to millions of people and was only alleviated by the discovery of fresh supplies of gold in California, Alaska and Australia. Later, its restriction of credit made life miserable for millions in the 1920's and 1930's."

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/records/research-guides/slave-trade-emancipation.htm#17049
"In the space of some 26 years, Britain had not only outlawed the Atlantic slave trade but also abolished slavery throughout its West Indian possessions For many, the struggle was over. For others, however, 1833 signalled a new beginning. Despite Britain's withdrawal from the transatlantic slave trade, the traffic still flourished; in fact, since 1807 it had steadily grown, or so it seemed to contemporaries. The institution of slavery also still flourished, most notably in the Spanish island of Cuba and in the United States. Here was a fresh challenge. In 1839 abolitionists organised the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, and with that the movement entered a new (international) phase that in many ways anticipated the work of Anti-Slavery International, and continues to the present day."

http://www.socialisthistorysociety.co.uk/HART.HTM

Richard Hart's:
Labour Rebellions of the 1930s in the British Caribbean Region Colonies
(Published 2002 jointly by Caribbean Labour Solidarity and the Socialist History Society. ISBN of printed version: 0 9537742 3 6 

http://www.britainexpress.com/attractions.htm?attraction=3720
Abolition (1750-1807)
'European slave traders rarely doubted or questioned their work. They generally gave thanks to the Lord for a quick/safe/profitable passage, praying for good winds and good trade. They gave thankful prayers when safe from storms and slave rebellion. Rarely however did they imagine that their work was a godless, unchristian exercise. The Africans below decks were mere items of trade, numbered and documented in the slave logs like beasts and other items of trade: numbered but never named. The Atlantic slave system had reduced the African to an object. This was achieved not simply by the impersonal rise of an economic system, but through conscious policy: by Acts of Parliament, by colonial laws (approved in London), by common law decisions, and by the vigorous activities of British (and other European) merchants, traders, planters and working people, at all points of this notorious `triangular trade.’

The final source is WISC's minutes and letters that were exchanged during its quest to intoduce the concept of Equal Opportunities. I have selective in publishing the key letters from Prime Minister Gordon Brown, David Cameron when he was Leader of the Opposition; Nick Clegg - Leader of the Liberal Democrats ;  Sir Herman Ouseley a former Chairmman of the CRE  







West Indian Standing Conference is a company limited by guarantee and incorporated in England No. 4753439
Community Web Kit provided free by BT